- shortening of the long now in painting

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Benozzo Gozzoli, The Dance of Salome (1461-62)

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Edgar Degas, Place de la Concorde (1875)

- Etienne-Jules Marey and the “Méthode Graphique”

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The first graph in history by Oresmius (ca. 1350), and graph-producing machines by Etienne-Jules Marey (1866)

- Etienne-Jules Marey and Chronophotography

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Chronophotograph by Marey (ca. 1882)

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Chronophotograph by Marey (ca. 1885)

- Motion study and the rationalization of work

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Chronocyclegraph of bricklaying by Frank Gilbreth (1912)

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3D motion models by Frank Gilbreth (1918)

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ideal hammer motion by A.K.Gastev (ca. 1926)

- Chronophotography and futurist painting

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Giacomo Balla, Ragazza che corre al balcone (1912)

- Philosophical toys and the invention of cinema

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Phenakistiscope (ca. 1840)

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the Lumière camera (1895)

- a history of scanning

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J.L.Baird and an experimental scanning device (ca. 1925)

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Zworykin and his vacuum tube (1938)

- Bergson, montage and mental imagery

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memory shortcuts by Romberch (ca. 1520)

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dialectical montage by Sergei Eisenstein (ca. 1938)

- timeslices and timecubes

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time-slice recording by Tim McMillan (1983)

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Oskar Fischinger’s wax-slicing machine (1922)

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anonymous timecube imagery (2007)

further reading:

  • Marta Braun, “Picturing Time, The Work of Etienne-Jules Marey”, University of Chicago Press, 1992.
  • Siegfried Zielinsky, “Audiovisions, Cinema and Television as Entr’actes in History”, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, 1999.

even further reading:

  • Lew Andrews, “Story and Space in Renaissance Art, the Rebirth of Continuous Narrative”, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Laurent Mannoni, “Etienne-Jules Marey, La Mémoire d’Oeil”, Mazotta, Milano, 1999.
  • Stephen Kern, “The Culture of Time and Space, 1880 - 1918″, Harvard University Press, 1983.
  • Peter Weibel, “Die Beschleunigung der Bilder in der Chronokratie”, Benteli, Bern, 1987.
  • Albert Abramson, “The History of Television, 1880 to 1941″, McFarland, Jefferson, 1987.
  • Henri Bergson, “L’évolution créatrice”, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1941.
  • Oliver Sacks, “In The River of Consciousness“, New York Review of Books, vol 51, nr 1, 2004
  • Jörg Jochen Berns, “Film vor dem Film”, Jonas Verlag, Marburg, 2000.
  • Tim McMillan’s company TimeSlice films
  • Golan Levin’s chronology of ’slit-scan video’